So, let’s answer this one quickly… Can a hybrid beat a road bike?
Of course not! But a road bike can’t beat a hybrid either – they both pretty much sit there until a person gets on one and pushes the pedals around in a circle.
Phew, glad I could clear that up.
As far as what the question intended, which would be can a rider be faster on a hybrid than a road bike, don’t be silly. I, on a decent road bike, would absolutely smear me on a decent hybrid. It’s not even close.
The reason for this is simple – aerodynamics. On a hybrid you’re sitting upright, your body acts like a human sized sail that catches the air/wind as you move forward. On a road bike, especially in the drops on a road bike, your body is more parallel to the ground, therefore you cut into the air/wind better.
Now, if you only ever ride with the wind, now you might have something, because on a hybrid the wind will help push you, but let’s face reality… If you go out, generally speaking you have to come back. Hybrids have their place, there’s no doubt, but there’s a reason the pros ride road bikes rather than hybrids… Road bikes are faster.
I’d argue that the road bike is more comfortable too, but that’s opening up a can of worms right there.